The Ark and the Dove
“The Beginning of Civil and Religious Liberties in America”
by J. Moss Ives
first published 1936
Book Three: The Harvest
Supporting the Revolution
While Charles Carroll was absent on the Canadian mission there was backsliding in the Maryland convention. The Tory faction(Loyalists) succeeded in having a resolution adopted, that declared a “reunion with Great Britain on constitutional principles would most effectually secure the rights and liberties and increase the strength and promote the happiness of the whole empire.” Further, the resolution prohibited the Maryland delegates to the Continental Congress favoring and movement for independence.
Carroll was chagrined on his return to find that during his absence the convention has thus declared against independence. With others who shared his views, he set in motion the machinery of democracy installed in the days of Thomas Cornwaleys, but which at times since had accumulated considerable rust. True to the customs and traditions of old Catholic Maryland, the patriots went directly to the people for support. The Maryland delegates were recalled from the Congress and the freemen were asked if they favored independence. On this issue there was a return to a pure democracy. Meeting in their sovereign political capacity in their several counties the freemen by popular and decisive vote instructed their representatives in the convention to rescind all previous instructions and to allow the delegates to congress to unite with the other colonists in declaring for independence.
A new convention was called to meet June 21, 1776. Charles Carroll was in his seat June 24, and four days later, on his motion, the convention resolved that the previous instructions given the delegates to Congress be recalled and
the deputies of this colony or a majority of them or any three of more of them be authorized and empowered to concur with the other united colonies or a majority of them in declaring the United Colonies free and independent states, provided the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and policy of this colony be reserved to the people thereof.
This was Maryland’s declaration of independence. It was the work of Charles Carroll.
To ratify and confirm the course that had been determined upon, the convention prepared and adopted a formal declaration, July 3, 1776. The first clause of this declaration recites the privilege of exemption from parliamentary taxation granted to Lord Baltimore in the Royal Charter and the right under the charter to local self government:
To be exempted from parliamentary taxation and to regulate their internal government and polity, the people of this colony have ever considered as their inherent and inalienable right; without the former they can have no property, without the latter, no security for their lives or liberties.
The declaration continues:
Compelled by dire necessity, either to surrender our properties, liberties and lives into the hands of a British king or parliament, or to use such means as will most probably secure to us and our posterity those invaluable blessings, We, the delegates of Maryland in convention assembled, do declare that the King of Great Britain has violated his compact with his people, and they owe no allegiance to him. We have therefore thought it just and necessary to empower our deputies in congress to join with a majority of the united colonies in declaring them free and independent states, in framing such further confederation between them, in making foreign alliances and in adopting such other measures as shall be judged necessary for the preservation of their liberties; provided the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal policy and government of this colony be reserved to the people thereof.
William Hand Browne has said that if there is one thing in Maryland’s honored history to which her sons can look back “with especial-perhaps melancholy-pride, it is the action of the convention of 1776.”
On the fourth day of July, 1776, when the Congress of the United Colonies at Philadelphia adopted the Declaration of Independence, Charles Carroll of Carrollton was elected a delegate from Maryland to the Congress.. The Declaration of Independence was not signed until nearly a month later. Carroll took his seat in Congress, July 18, and on the following day the document was ordered to be engrossed on parchment. The Declaration was signed, August 2, 1776, Charles Carroll being the last signer. The fact that he signed his name as “Charles Carroll of Carrollton” has given rise to an interesting story that has turned out to be pure fiction. There was no special significance attached to his signature. He had signed his name in this manner for years. The real facts of the signing are stated by John H. B. Latrobe in his contribution to Sanderson’s Biographies of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence:
The engrossed copy of the Declaration of Independence was placed on the desk of the secretary of congress on the second of August to receive the signatures of the members and Mr. Hancock, President of Congress, during a conversation with Mr. Carroll asked him if he would sign it. Most willingly was the reply and taking up a pen he at once put his name to the instrument. “There go a few millions” said one, who stood by; and all at the time agreed that in point of fortune few risked more than Charles Carroll of Carrollton.
My comment: Psst ya think he really was risking his wealth or seeing how he could save guard it!!
The day after Charles Carroll took his seat in the Continental Congress he was appointed to the Board of War. This appointment was a signal honor. It came in recognition of his services in the cause of American Independence and of his ability to manage military affairs which he had demonstrated in connection with his services on the Canadian mission. This was a real board of war. It was invested with wide powers. The committee of Congress, appointed June 12, 1776, which was called the Board of War and ordnance, consisted of five members: John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Harrison, James Wilson and Edmund Rutledge. Richard Peters was secretary. The board was increased to six members to permit the appointment of Carroll. It was entrusted with the executive duties of the military department. It was empowered to forward dispatches from Congress to the armies in the field and to the colonies, to superintend the raising, equipping and dispatching of the armed forces, and to have charge of all military provisions. It was the War Department of the new government.
John Adams in his autobiography comments on the appointment of Carroll to the board: “Thursday July 18th. Resolved that a member be added to the Board of War. The member chosen, Mr. Carroll. An excellent member whose education manners and application to business and to study did honor to his fortune, the first in America.” After Carroll had been appointed to the Canadian mission, Adams sent a communication to James Warren which reveals that he was well pleased with the envoys selected. He described John Carroll as “a Roman Catholic priest and a Jesuit, a gentleman of learning and ability.” Of Charles Carroll he said:
Carroll’s name and character are equally unknown to you. I was introduced to him about eighteen months ago in this city and was much pleased with his conversation. He has a fortune, as I am well informed, which is computed to be worth two hundred thousand pounds sterling. He is a native of Maryland and his father is still living. He had a liberal education in France and is well acquainted with the French nation. He speaks their language as easily as ours, and what is perhaps of more consequence than the rest, he was educated in the Roman Catholic religion and still continues to worship his Maker according to the rites of that church. In the cause of American liberty, his zeal, fortitude and perseverance have been so conspicuous that he is said to be marked out for peculiar vengeance by the friends of administration; but he continues to hazard his all, his immense fortune, the largest in America and his life. This gentleman’s character if I foresee aright will make him hereafter a greater figure in America. His abilities are very good, his knowledge and learning extensive. I have seen writings of his which would convince you of this. Your may perhaps hear before long more about them.
Carroll found time while a member of the Congress to return several times to Annapolis to see that Maryland adjusted herself to the new government. At a convention meeting on August 14, 1776, he took his seat as a delegate from Annapolis. The Declaration of Independence was the first matter brought up for consideration. It was promptly resolved, “That this convention will maintain the freedom and in-dependency of the United States with their lives and fortunes.” As a member of the committee to draft a bill of rights he had a hand in framing the new state constitution.
While the state convention was in session Carroll was a member of Congress and a delegate to the Maryland legislative assembly. He returned to his duties in Congress as soon as Maryland had again declared for independence and adopted a bill of rights.
The Continental Congress did not show a marked degree of efficiency in directing practical warfare. If the members had shown as much ability in devising ways and means for an adequate commissariat and a sound system of finance as they did in drafting state papers, preparing resolutions and making speeches, Washington’s task would have been far easier. They were a patriotic and well intentioned body, of men but to much given to speech.
Charles Carroll took little part in the debates. He concerned himself more with his duties as a member of the War Board. In his letters to General Washington and others he showed that he had a real grasp of the problems that had to be solved. His experience in Canada had brought to him a realization of the conditions that were to handicap the Commander-in-Chief through the war-short term enlistments, incompetent officers, inadequate means of communication and of supply and a weak system of finance. In a letter to Washington he wrote:
Nothing but severe punishments will in my opinion make the commissaries and quartermasters attentive to their duties. Your excellency has the power and I hope will not want the will to punish such as deserve punishment. I hope your Excellency will excuse the freedom of this letter. My zeal for our Country and my wishes for your success have impelled me to write thus freely on a subject that claims all your attention, the reformation of the army and of the abuses prevalent in the two important departments of the quartermaster and commissary-general.
He wrote a letter to Franklin, August 1777, in which he expressed his views on the question of sound finance and the danger of depreciated currency: “My greatest apprehension arises from the depreciation of out paper money and if we emit more bills of credit they will fall to nothing.” He stressed the need of a stronger confederation “that will give weight and consequence to the United States collectively and great security to each individually and a credit also to our paper money, but I despair of such a confederacy as ought and would take place if little and impartial interests could be laid aside.” Congress had resorted to the easy method of inflation and the printing presses were busy flooding the country with cheap currency. Two years later he wrote to Franklin: “The depreciation of our bills of credit is such that they scarcely answer the purposes of money. The Congress has stopped the press; this in my opinion should have been done much sooner.”
He gave his support and aid to Robert Morris in organizing the Bank of North America. It was through a committee of which Carroll was a member and one of the moving spirits that Morris was induced to administer the finances of the war, and organize a banking system. Many of the colonies were contributing tobacco and other commodities but these were only serviceable until through his banking system Morris found sale for them in the ports of the West Indies. Carroll, with other wealthy men, including Washington, sent ready cash to Morris who displayed the gold in the bank windows to let the people know that his system was functioning. “Despite all criticism and antagonism the Bank of North America flourished. A large part of the success came from the selection of the right man and that selection was largely due to the careful planning and committee work of Charles Carroll.”
Carroll had little patience with the talkative Congress. He wrote to Governor Johnson of Maryland: “The Congress do worse than ever. We murder time and chat it away in idle, impertinent talk.” He hoped that “the urgency of affairs would teach even that body a little discretion.” He preferred to spend most of his time with the active forces where he could learn of conditions at first hand and be of some practical aid. Several of his published letters were written from the field of operations.
In a letter written during 1777 from Swan Creek, where he was with the Maryland first line troops, he said that the life he was leading was fatiguing and that “hard lodging and irregular hours of eating begin to disagree with my puny constitution and habits of body. But perhaps I can soon be inured to and better support the fatigue of a campaign.” In the winter of 1778 he was at Valley Forge with a committee of Congress on which were also Gouverneur Morris and Robert Reed. In the following spring, in a letter to Governor Johnson, he expressed the fear that England would send over during the course of the summer and fall, at least 14,000 men. “is it not strange,” he asked, “that the lust of dominion should force the British nation to greater exertions that the desire of liberty can produce among us? If our people would but exert themselves in this campaign, we might secure our liberties forever. General Washington is weak as reinforcements come in slowly. Try for God’s sake and for the sake of human nature, to rouse our countrymen from their lethargy!”
Carroll showed his loyalty to Washington by assisting to thwart the Conway Cabal which had as its objective the replacement of Washington as Commander-in-Chief by the incompetent and vain-glorious Gates. Such a substitution would have been fatal to the American cause. General Conway was the instigator of the conspiracy. An interesting disclosure is made in a letter written by him to Carroll, November 14, 1777. Conway complained in this letter about the “extraordinary discourses held by you, Sir,” and others on account of “my applying for the rank of major general.” Carroll had very pertinently asked on what ground Conway sought a major-generalship. Conway tried to convince him that the request was “not as impertinent as you, sir, and other gentlemen have styled it.” The attack on Washington came at the darkest hour of his military career, after the defeats at Brandywine and Germantown, when he needed the support and loyalty of his friends. It was due to the activities of Carroll, Gouverneur Morris and Colonel John Fitzgerald, a Catholic officer on Washington’s staff, that the plot was frustrated.
Leonard in his biography of Charles Carroll says that Washington and Franklin were in favor of sending him to France to open negotiations for a French alliance. “I am the one man that must be kept entirely in the background,” Carroll is quoted as saying. “It must not be known to a single soul that I am personally active in this matter.” Without Carroll’s aid, according to Leonard, the alliance could not have been brought about:
Men like John H. B. Latrobe and others who knew, believed that the friendship of France never could have been secured nor the alliance formed but for the effective work done by Carroll. Mr. Bushrod Washington who had talked the matter over may times with his brother, was clearly of the same opinion and in the expression of this he doubtless reflected the views of Washington himself.
In a letter written from Morristown in 1777 to Carroll by Colonel Fitzgerald there is a significant passage. After giving the news of the arrival of the French fleet at Portsmouth with twelve thousand stand of arms and of the expected arrival at a New Jersey port of a fifty-gun ship from France, laden with heavy artillery and military stores, Fitzgerald adds that “this news will be very agreeable to you,” and “I therefore sincerely congratulate you thereon and hope you will pardon the liberty on my side of beginning a correspondence with you.” The reason for the congratulation is obvious-the writer believed that Carroll was largely responsible for bringing the aid of France.
The exchange of letters between Carroll and Franklin was frequent and discloses the fact that Carroll was in intimate touch with the negotiations Franklin was conducting at the French court. In a letter written from Annapolis in 1779 Carroll writes:
I flattered myself some months ago that ten or twelve ships of the line from France with ten thousand land forces, would have joined this fall Count d’Estating’s fleet off New York. Had such an expedition taken place there is the greater reason to believe the enemy’s arm must have surrendered prisoners of war; such an event must have put an end to it and have produced peace of which we stand in so much need. If this winter should not bring about that desirable event, cannot such an expedition be taken early next summer? If such an expedition, as I prose, should be thought of seriously, it will be necessary to dispatch a frigate very early in February or sooner to notify General Washington thereof in time, that he might fully be prepared to act immediately with the fleet on its arrival before New York.
When Carroll was studying at Paris he met Vergennes and later was able to use influence with him in the negotiations. Arthur Lee, one of the commissioners of Congress sent to France, in a letter written to Samuel Adams voiced his disapproval of the manner in which Franklin was conducting the negotiations and suggested that a man of “sense, of honor and of integrity and education” be sent to the Court of France to represent the United States, and “in many respects, I should think Mr. Carroll the Catholic, is the man to send in his place.” No doubt Lee was influenced by jealousy in advocating the removal of Franklin, but the letter shows that Carroll was seriously considered as an envoy to France.
Carroll evidently feared that his usefulness to the American cause would be impaired if he were to accept the French mission and believed that an alliance with a Catholic power should be brought about by a non-Catholic envoy. He chose to remain in the background but nevertheless his advise and influence were important contributions to the success of the negotiations.
The American Tories(Loyalists) did not miss the opportunity to raise the old religious issue as the negotiations progressed. Printed reports were circulated that the French king, for the purpose of converting America to the Catholic faith, was preparing to send over a fleet laden with “tons of holy water and casks of consecrated oil, a thousand chests of relics and bales of indulgences,” together with implements for an inquisition, and with this fleet would come an army of “priests, confessors, and mendicants.”(beggars) The report was also circulated that Franklin had been decorated with the emblem of a Catholic order by the Pope. The infamy of such an alliance declared a Tory(Loyalist) writer “could not be matched and to think it was done just as England was again offering the balm of peace to her ungrateful children!”
There was some misgiving on the part of many of those loyal to the American cause particularly in the northern colonies, as to the wisdom of an alliance with Catholic France but it was not sufficient to offset the sentiment in its favor. America was desperately in need of a strong ally. The aid of France not only did much to bring about the surrender of Cornwallis, but it served also to break down the old time prejudice against Catholics and the Catholic Church, and was a strong factor in the ultimate recognition of principle of religious freedom.
That Charles Carroll was seriously considered as president of congress is revealed in a letter from Gerard, the diplomatic envoy from France to the United States, written November 10, 1778 to Vergennes in Paris:
Congress is at present embarrassed with the choice of a new president. For that office, a man active and talented is required and with a fortune that would permit him to make some appearance. Mr. Carroll of Maryland is the one spoken of. He is a Roman Catholic but it is feared he will not accept.
Carroll had no ambition for public office. He desired only to serve his country as a private citizen. He sought neither office nor honors. He resigned his seat in Congress after it was known that the French alliance had been consummated and returned to Maryland where he resumed his place in the state senate. He was reelected to Congress but did not accept. There was another reason for his resignation and his declination of re-election. He wrote to Franklin:
The great deal of important time which was idly wasted in frivolous debate disgusted me so much that I thought I might spend more of my time much better that by remaining a silent hearer of such speeches as neither edified, entertained nor instructed me.
He was not the only member of Congress who was disgusted with the debates which were taking place in that body. Henry Laurens, president of the Congress in the same year, tells of hours being spent in discussion of Queen Elizabeth and Mary, Queen of Scots,(Spanish Armada) and the “comparative beauty of black and of blue eyes. Carroll was sensible in his decision that he could render greater service to the American cause by leaving the Continental Congress and returning to Maryland.(He did not want to start another Glorious revolution of 1688)
The main theatre of the war was now in the South and Maryland was to be the center of much activity, both military and naval. In the spring of 1781, Lafayette was stationed not far from Doughoregan Manor where he sought and obtained much needed supplies for his men. Congress seemed to be powerless and it was only through the aid of the States that the army could be clothed and fed. It was to Maryland that Washington looked for the principal source of supplies. In the southern campaign much dependence was place on the Maryland line. The line troops enabled Washington to win the war. Little dependence could be placed on the militia except when they were fighting on the soil of their own states. Carroll was on the committee which drafted the bill for recruiting the quota of Maryland troops for the Continental Line and when the bill was passed for raising an additional battalion of regulars he was on the committee to prepare an address urging the people to “redouble their efforts out of gratitude to our illustrious General and to the brave troops under his command.” When Gates led his ill-fated expedition to avenge the defeats at Charleston and Savannah the Maryland line troops composed the main part of the force. Carroll met them near Elkton and arranged to settle their arrears of pay and to provide them with food and clothing.
When it was proposed to confiscate the property of the Tories,(Loyalists) Carroll wrote to Benjamin Franklin, then in France that he believed such a measure to be “contrary to the practice of civilized nations,” and “may involve us in difficulties about making peace and will be productive of a certain loss and uncertain profit to this State, for as this business will be managed it will be made a job of and an opportunity given to engrossers and speculators to realize their ill-gotten money.” He had learned so much of the evils attending the confiscation of the properties of recusants(dissenters) in England and Ireland that he did not wish to see the evils of this practice in his own country even if it had to do with the confiscation of the property of Tories.(Loyalists) Some of the property sought to be confiscated in Maryland belonged to the Dulaney family. Daniel Dulaney who made Charles Carroll the first citizen in Maryland, and other members of his family had become Tories.(Loyalists)
In the summer of 1781, Admiral de Grasse arrived in the waters of the Chesapeake at the head of a fleet of twenty-five vessels, having on board a naval and military force of 21,738 officers and men. The French admiral engaged and defeated the British fleet under Admiral Graves, brother of the man to whom Charles Carroll had written letters prior to the Revolution predicting final victory for the cause of independence. The failure of the British fleet spelled defeat for the British land forces and the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown soon followed.
Maryland had asked Congress to establish the permanent capital of the government at Annapolis and the Congress had voted to move the seat of government there for the time being. Congress was sitting at Annapolis when the Treaty of Peace was signed at Paris in 1783. There was a celebration to commemorate the peace and final victory. It was on the Carroll estate, “Carroll’s Green,” that the festivities were held. General Washington came to Annapolis to submit to Congress his resignation as Commander-in Chief. Carroll was a member of the committee for the reception. This committee was instructed to prepare an address to Washington. The address made reference to the need of a stronger central government and declared that if the powers give to Congress by the Confederation “should be found to be incompetent to the purposes of the Union, we doubt not our constituents will readily consent to enlarge them.” Andrews says that this was “a foreshadowing of the call for the Constitutional Convention of the United States.”
After the surrender at Yorktown the French troops under Rochambeau camped at Baltimore on the ground now occupied by the Catholic Cathedral. Here with the troops forming a hollow square, a solemn Mass of Thanksgiving was celebrated, the Mass being sung by an Irish priest, chaplain to the French Commander.
The full extent of the services of Charles Carroll of Carrollton will never be known. What little information is available is found mostly in his letters. But he was always so modest, keeping himself in the background in all that he did, seeking neither praise nor honor, that his letters do not tell all. There was no one among those not wearing the uniform of the Continental Army, and served the American people in more positions of responsibility and usefulness, than he.
Conclusion of Chapter V “Supporting the Revolution”
The Carrolls(the Jesuits, John, Charles, Daniel) were key players behind the American revolution using the cover of the Freemasons. The revolution gave us a Universal(Catholic) government. Sun Worship is a Universal religion.(Catholicism) The American revolution became the end of a protest government. There is nothing in the constitution or the Bill of Rights that protests Rome. It was the birth of ecumenism and history shows us how successful they have been.
The names, the numbers, the dates, the locus and layout of the federal city, the architecture, the statuary, the monuments, the emblems, the frescoes, the ceremonies – they come not from the Trickster’s victims, but from the Trickster himself. It’s as if the point of the trick is to warn the victim beforehand, in words and pictures, that he or she is about to be tricked. A con is much sweeter when the mark actually consents to the con. That way, the Trickster’s conscience is clear. America succumbed to the Con and what was illegal(Mass)in England, became legal(Mass) in America. America become the image of the beast in 1776.
We were taught that the American revolution was over tea and taxes. Please understand dear Reader that I am not Anti-Catholic I am Pro Bible. Who runs the United States Government.? Psst no it is not the Jews. My goal with this website is to show you with history who runs the US Government. The United States was founded, financed and is run by the Jesuits. The Jesuits using Freemasonry as a cover run every aspect of the US government. The symbolism we see in the District of Columbia and the Statue of Liberty in New York is Lucifer Sun Worship. The Vatican, , Illuminati, Zionism, Freemasonry and the Jesuits control it at the top. At the top they worship Lucifer. It is ALL Lucifer Sun worship and the center is the Vatican.
In this world it really does not matter what your personal religious beliefs are, but what is happening in the world today has everything to do with Lucifer Sun Worship. It does not matter if you believe in Lucifer Sun Worship or not, if the people who believe in Roman Catholicism(Lucifer Sun Worship) our in government it will most assuredly affect you.
Chapter one of “Rulers of Evil” Subliminal Rome. will connect the dots. Again I am not throwing stones at the Catholics, they are just the ones that are in control. The Monuments, emblems, frescoes and ceremonies are symbols used in Sun Worship.(Which is Roman Catholicism) We look at Washington D.C and think the symbols are Freemasonry, no it is Lucifer Sun Worship which controls the Masons, the Zionist, Ecumenism and Rome. Sun Worship is the religion of the world.